Health for all Children

Chapter 3 References

Where possible we have provided additional details of websites referenced, see the Support Directory.

page page
53-55 Sure Start 66 Motor development and coordination
55 Parenting & child development 66 Government committment to sport
56-57 Parent support schemes 67 Work of Browne
58 Cost of parent programmes, Scott 67 Prevention of child abuse
59 Prevention of violence in children 68 Domestic violence
60 Nurture groups in schools 68 Refuges for women
60 Somatizers 68 Female genital mutilation
61 Why mothers die 69 Child prostitution
61 Postnatal depression 70-73 Systematic review of home visiting (HTA)
63 DFES on preschool development 70-73 Home Start
63-64 Language & literacy development 70-73 New Pin
65 Whitehurst review 70-73 Daycare
65 Hannon, book start (Wade and Moore) 70-73 Low birth weight infants
65 Reading difficulties 72 Childcare for working parents
65 WILSTARR 73 School readiness concept


Page 53-55: Sure Start
SureStart web site
Example of early development programme in USA –
Similar –
An evaluation of the First Parent Health Visitor Scheme. Edmond A, Pollock J, Deave T, Bonnell S, Peters T J and Harvey I. Arch Dis Child 2002, 86, 150-157

Page 55: Parenting & child development; attachment theory
Kalnins I., McQueen D.V., Backett, K.C., Curtice, L., and Currie, C.E. (1992). Children, empowerment and health rpomotion: some new directions in research and practice. Health Promotion International, 7, 53-9.}
The concept of support is well described in Oakley’s studies: see for example Oakley, A. (1992). Social support and motherhood. Blackwell, Oxford.
Health promotion in pregnancy is important: see Garcia, J., France-Dawson, M, and Macfarlane, A. (1994). Improving infant health. Health Education Authority, London. The Olds studies (see also imply benefits from establishing a professional relationship during pregnancy.
The importance of social networks is discussed in social science texts, e.g.: Whittaker, J.K., Garbarino, J., and associates. (1983). Social support networks. Aldine, New York.
Helpful parenting – a report. 2002.
van Ijzendoorn MH, Juffer F, Duyvesteyn MGC. Breaking the intergenerational cycle of insecure attachment: a review of the effects of attachment-based interventions on maternal sensitivity and infant security. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1995;36:225-248.
George C, Solomon J. Attachment and caregiving: the caregiving behavioral system. In: Cassidy J, Shaver PR, eds. Handbook of attachment: theory, research and clinical applications. New York.: Guilford Press., 1999;649-670.
Conroy, S. and Smith, M. Exploring infant health: a review commissioned by the Foundation for the Study of Infant Deaths. 1999. London, FSID.

Page 56-57: Parent Support Schemes
Multicentre controlled trial of parenting groups for childhood antisocial behaviour in clinical practice. Scott S, Spender Q, Doolan M, Jacobs B and Aspland H. BMJ. 2001. 323. 1-7
Davis H, Spurr P. Parent counselling: an evaluation of a community child mental health service. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1998;39:365-376.
Parenting programmes to improve the mental health of 0-3 year old children
Parson J, Barlow J (In press). Parenting programmes for children aged 0-3 years – Protocol. In: The Cochrane Library. (This review will be finished by September)
Parenting programmes to improve the mental health of 3-10 year old children
* Barlow J, Stewart-Brown SL (2000). Review Article: Behavior Problems and Parent Training Programs. Journal of Developmental and Behavioural Pediatrics, 21(5), 356-370.
* Barlow J (1997). Systematic review of the effectiveness of parent-training programmes in improving behaviour problems in children aged 3 – 10 years. Oxford: HSRU. (This is the full review).Parenting programmes and maternal psychosocial health
* Barlow J, Coren E (2000). Parenting programmes and maternal psychosocial well-being (Cochrane Review). Issue 3, 2000 Oxford: Update Software. In: The Cochrane Library.
* Barlow J, Coren E (Submitted). Parenting programmes and maternal psychosocial well-being. British Journal of General Practice.
* Barlow J, Coren E (2000). Parenting programmes and maternal psychosocial well-being: findings from a systematic review. Oxford: HSRU. (This is the full review – RCTs + other study methodologies).
Parenting programmes for teenage parents
Coren E, Barlow J (2001). Individual and group-based parenting programme for improving psychosocial outcomes for teenage parents and their children. Issue 4, 2001 Oxford: Update Software. In: The Cochrane Library.
* Coren E, Barlow J (2001). Parenting Programmes for Teenage Parents. Oxford? HSRU.
Qualitative data about parenting programmes
* Barlow J, Stewart-Brown S (2001). Understanding parenting programmes:
parents’ views. Primary Health Care Research and Development, 2, 117-130.
RCT of the effectiveness of a parent-training programme in a primary care context

Patterson J, Mockford C, Barlow J, Stewart-Brown S, Pyper (2000). Is there a demand for community parenting programmes. Oxford: HSRU.
Patterson J, Mockford C, Barlow J, Stewart-Brown S, Pyper RCT of the effectiveness of a parenting programme in primary care. Arch Dis Child 2002,
Web site for fathers –
National Family and Parenting Institute – a new organisation to support families in raising children. Web site –
National Parent Information Network –

Page 58: Cost of parent programmes and health economics, Scott
Financial cost of social exclusion: follow up study of antisocial children into adulthood. Scott S, Knapp M, Henderson J and Maughan B. BMJ. 2001. 323. 1-5

Page 59: Prevention of violence in children
Children in a violent study. Edited by Joy D Osofsky, PhD. 1998. Published by Guilford Publications, Inc. ISBN: 1-57230-387-5
For an American Academy of Pediatrics view, see
Guymer EC, Mellor D, Luk ES, Pearse V. The development of a screening questionnaire for childhood cruelty to animals.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2001 Nov;42(8):1057-63

Page 60: Nurture groups in schools; comprehensive behaviour support plans
Good practice guidance on Promoting Children’s Mental Health within Early Years and School Settings (DfES 0112/2001) was published in June 2001. The guidance offers pointers and examples of good practice in the area of early identification and interventions for children and young people experiencing mental health problems in pre-school and school settings. It provides a useful tool for ensuring that the mental health needs of children and young people are met, and that all enjoy a positive school experience. The guidance is available from the DfES Publications Centre.

Page 60: Somatizers
Whitehead, W.E., Crowell, M.D., Heller, B.R., Robinson, J.C., Schuster, M.N., & Horn, S. (1994). Modelling and Reinforcement of the Sick Note during childhood predicts adult illness behaviour. Psychosomatic Medicine56, 541-550.

Page 61: Why mothers die
Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom (CEMD). Why mothers die. Report for 1997 – 1999 and Executive Summary. 2001.

Page 61: Postnatal depression
Cooper PJ, Murray L. Postnatal depression. British Medical Journal 1998;316:1884-1886.
See review by National Screening

Page 63: DFES on preschool development and developmental skills
Child Outcomes Research and Evaluation –
Lazar, I., Darlington, R., Murray, H., Royce, J., and Snipper, A. Lasting effects of early education. Monographs of the Society for Research In Child Development 47 (2-3, serial no. 195) 1982.
Farrington DP. Early developmental prevention of juvenile delinquency. Criminal behaviour and mental health. 1994;4:209-227.
Fox R. Development and learning. In: Desforges C, ed. An introduction to teaching: Psychological perspectives. Oxford: Blackwell, 1995;55-71.
Trocme N, Caunce C. The educational needs of abused and neglected children: A review of the literature. Early-Child-Development-and-Care. 1995;106:101-135.
Crnic K, Lamberty G. Reconsidering School Readiness: Conceptual and Applied Qualification and Curriculum Authority. The baseline assessment information pack – preparation for statutory baseline assessment. 1998. London, QCA.
Rigby AS, Sanderson C, Desforges ME, Lindsay G, Hall DMB. The Infant Index: a new outcome measure for pre-school children’s services. Journal of Public Health Medicine1999;21:172-178.
Fox R. Development and learning. In: Desforges C, ed. An introduction to teaching: Psychological perspectives. Oxford: Blackwell, 1995;55-71.
Crnic, K., & Lamberty G. (1994, April). Reconsidering school readiness: Conceptual and applied perspectives. Early Education and Development 5(2), 99-105. Available online:www.

Page 63-64: Language and literacy development
References for speech and language impairment –
Law J, Boyle J, Harris F, Harkness A & Nye C. (1998) Screening for speech and language delay: A systematic review of the literature Health Technology Assessment 2 (9) 1-184
Grimshaw R, McGuire C, (1998) Evaluating parenting programmes: A Study of stakeholder’s views London: National Children’s BureauLeonard L, (1998) Children with specific language impairment Cambs, Mass: MIT Press
Stothard SE, Snowling MJ, Bishop DVM, Chipchase BB, Kaplan CA, (1998) Language impaired pre-schoolers: A follow-up into adolescence Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Disorders 41 4.7-418
Johnson CJ, Beitchman JH, Young A, Escobar M, Atkinson L, Wilson B, Brownlie EB, Douglas L, Taback N, Lam I, Wang M, (1999) Fourteen year follow-up of children with and without speech/language impairments: speech/language stability and outcomes. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research 42, 3, 744-761Haynes C, Naidoo S. Children with specific speech and language impairment. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific 1991.
Law J, Lindsay G, Peacey N, Gascoigne M, Soloff N, Radford J, Band S, Fitzgerald L (2000) Provision for children with speech and language needs in England and Wales: Facilitating communication between education and health services. Nottingham: DfEE Publications Also available as a research briefing on
De Koning HJ de Ridder JG, Reep CMM van Agt HME, van der Stege H, Korfage I Polder JJ, van der Lem GJ, van der Maas PJ, A randomised trial of screening for language disorders in preschool children
Laing GJ, Law J, Levin A, Logan S. Evaluation of a structured test and a parent led method for screening for speech and language problems: prospective population based study. BMJ. 2002;325:1152
Law J, Kot A, Barnett G, (1999) A comparison of two methods for providing intervention to three year old children with specific language impairment Project report submitted to North Thames Regional Health Authority Responsive Funding Group April 1999
Merzenich MM, Jenkins WM, Johnston P, Schreiner C, Miller S, Tallal P, (1996) Temporal processing deficits of language-learning impaired children ameliorated by training Science 271 77-81
Bishop DVM, North T, Donlan C, (1996) Non word repetition as a behavioural marker for inherited language impairment: evidence from a twin study Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 37, 391-403
Rice ML, (1997) Specific language impairments: in search of diagnostic markers and genetic contributions Mental retardation and developmental disabilities research reviews 3: 350-357
Law J, Boyle J, Harris F, Harkness A, Nye C. Screening for speech and language delay: a systematic review of the literature. Health Technology Assessment. 1998;2:Pinker, S. The language instinct. 1994. London, Allen Lane, the Penguin Press.
Dale PS, Simonoff E, Bishop DVM, et al. Genetic influence on language delay in two-year-old children. Nature Neuroscience 1998;1:324-328.
Tallal P, Rice ML. Evaluating new training programs for language impairment [see comments].ASHA 1997;39:12-13.
Hannon P, Nutbrown C. Teachers’ use of a conceptual framework for early literacy education invovling parents. Teacher development 1997;1:405-420.

Page 65: Whitehouse review
Smith L. Predicting communicative competence at 2 and 3 years from pragmatic skills at 10 months. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders 1998;33:127-148.
Dale PS, Simonoff E, Bishop DVM, et al. Genetic influence on language delay in two-year-old children. Nature Neuroscience 1998;1:324-328.
Whitehurst GJ, Fischel JE. Practitioner review: early developmental language delay: what, if anything, should the clinician do about it? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry1994;35:613-648.
Whitehurst GJ. Language processes in context – language learning in children reared in poverty. In: Adamson LB, Romski MA, eds. Communication and language acquisition – discoveries from atypical development. London: Jessica Kingsley, 1997;233-265.
Whitehurst GJ, Lonigan CJ. Child development and emergent literacy. [Review] [240 refs].Child Development 1998;69:848-872.
PROVISION FOR CHILDREN WITH SPEECH AND LANGUAGE NEEDS IN ENGLAND AND WALES: Facilitating communication between education and health services Law J, Lindsay G, Peacey N, Gascoigne M, Soloff N, Radford J ,Band S, with Fitzgerald L, Dept. of Language and Communication Science, City University,Institute of Education, University of Warwick & Institute of Education, University of London ISBN 1 84185 398 4
November 2000 DfES Research Brief 239

Page 65: Hannon, book start (Wade and Moore); Pears early eductions partnership in Oxford.
Locke JL. A theory of neurolinguistic development. Brain and Language 1997;58:265-326.
Rescorla L, Mirak J. Normal language acquisition. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology 1997;4:70-76.
Hannon P. Literacy, Home and School. London: Falmer, 1995

Page 65: Reading Difficulties
Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children Catherine E. Snow, M. Susan Burns, and Peg Griffin, Editors Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children, National Research Council. 1999. National Academies Press. ISBN 0-309-06418-X 

Ward, S. (1999) An investigation into the effectiveness of an early intervention method for delayed language development in young children. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders34, 3, 243-264.
Ward S, Birkett D, (1998) An evaluation of the effectiveness of very early intervention for language delay: a follow-up study Paper presented at Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists 1998 Conference Liverpool 15-17 October

Page 66: Motor development and coordination
Polatajko HJ. Developmental coordination disorder. 119-133, in Whitmore K, Bax M, eds. Neurodevelopmental approach to specific learning disorders. Mackeith Press/ CUP, London; 1999, pp119-133

Page 66: Government committment to sport and physical activity
Health Benefits of Physical Activity Postnote No 162, 2001. Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology.
Physical Activity. Schools & Curriculum.

Page 67: Work of Browne
Browne, K., Davies, C. & Stratton, P. (1988). Early prediction and prevention of child abuse. John Wiley, Chichester; Burrell, B., Thompson, B., & Sexton, D. (1994). Predicting child abuse potential across family types. Child Abuse & Neglect18, 1039-1049. The case against individual risk scoring approaches is argued by: Baldwin, N. & Spencer, N. (1993). Deprivation and Child Abuse: Implications for Strategic Planning in Children’s Services. Children and Society7, 357?375.

Page 67: Prevention of child abuse
Preventing child sexual abuse programme in Vermont, USA.
A safer practice – a child protection guide for general practitioners & the primary health care team. Department of Health. The Stationery Office, 1996. (not available on the net)
For authoritative reviews of the literature on primary prevention of child abuse and maltreatment, see two companion papers: MacMillan, H.L., MacMillan, J.H., Offord, D.R., Griffith,L. and MacMillan, A. (1994). Primary prevention of child physical abuse and neglect: a critical review: part I. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 35, 835-56; Primary prevention of sexual abuse: part II – 857-76.

Page 68: Domestic violence – cross links to page 299
What works in reducing domestic violence? A comprehensive guide for professionals. Edited by Julie Taylor-Browne, December 2001. Published by Whiting and Birch Ltd, 90 Dartmouth Road, Forest Hill, London. SE23 3HZ. Phone 020 8244 2421, fax 020 8244 2448
Domestic Violence: A Resource Manual For Health Care Professionals. Department of Health, 2000.
Belenky MF, Bond L, Weinstoch J. Tradition that has no name: nurturing the development of people, families and communities. New York: Basic Books. 1997.

Page 68: Refuges for women
British Crime Survey 1992, quoted in a Review of Children’s Service Development (1995-98) at Refuge, written for the King’s Fund Refuge, 1998 – quoted in Tomorrow’s Future Building a Strategy for Children and Young People. Children and Young People’s Unit,
Webb, E , Shankleman J, Evans M R, Brooks R. The health of children in refuges for women victims of domestic violence: cross sectional descriptive survey. BMJ 2001;323:210-213.
Lynch M A, Gough D. Reaching all children. BMJ 2001; 323: 176-177.

Page 68: Female genital mutilation
Further details of the Liverpool Female Genital Mutilation Steering Group can be found
Toubia, N. (1994). Female circumcision as a public health issue. New England Journal of Medicine331, 712-6;
Webb, E. and Hartley, B. (1994). Female genital mutilation: a dilemma in child protection.Archives of Disease in Childhood70, 441-4.

Page 69: Child prostitution – national plan for safeguarding children from commercial sexual exploitation
Safeguarding Children Involved in Prostitution. Supplementary Guidance to Working Together to Safeguard Children .Department of Health, Home Office, Department for Education and Employment, National Assembly for Wales. 2000.

Page 70-73: Systematic review of home visiting (HTA)
The effectiveness of domiciliary health visiting: a systematic review of international studies and a selective review of the British literature. R Elkan R, Kendrick D, Hewitt M, Robinson JJA, Tolley K, Blair M, Dewey M, Williams D, Brummell K. HTA 2000, Volume 4, number 13
Further details on the Bristol child development programme can be found

Page 70-73: Home Start
For details of Home Start see Frost, Johnson, Stein and Wallis (1996) ‘Negotiated Friendship – Home Start and the Delivery of Family Support’, Home Start, Leicester, or the website

Page 70-73: New Pin 
Newpin is at

Page 70-73: Daycare – national childcare strategy
‘Tomorrows children’. A discussion paper on UK child care services in the coming decade. Published by the Association of Directors of Social Services. 2002.)
Meeting the Childcare Challenge. Ministers for Women. DfES.
Search Medline for various papers by Belsky, J.

Page 70-73: Low birth weight infants
Botting N, Powls A, Cooke RW, Marlow N. Cognitive and educational outcome of very-low-birthweight children in early adolescence. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1998 Oct;40(10):652-60.
Botting N, Powls A, Cooke RW, Marlow N. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders and other psychiatric outcomes in very low birthweight children at 12 years. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1997 Nov;38(8):931-41.
Powls A, Botting N, Cooke RW, Stephenson G, Marlow N. Visual impairment in very low birthweight children. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1997 Mar;76(2):F82-7.
Powls A, Botting N, Cooke RW, Pilling D, Marlow N. Growth impairment in very low birthweight children at 12 years: correlation with perinatal and outcome variables.Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1996 Nov;75(3):F152-7.
McCormick, M.C., McCarton, C., Tonascia, J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1993). Early educational intervention for very low birth weight infants: results from the Infant Health and Development Program. Journal of Pediatrics, 123, 527?533. Wolke, D. (1991). Supporting the Development of Low Birthweight Infants. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 32, 723-741.

Page 72: Childcare for working parents

Page 73: School readiness concept
Child Trends – a web site dealing with school readiness and related issues – Also The Future of Children –
Crnic K, Lamberty G. Reconsidering School Readiness: Conceptual and Applied Perspectives.Early Education and Development 1994;5:91-105
Musick, J., & Stott, F. (2000). Paraprofessionals revisited and reconsidered. In J. P. Shonkoff & S. J. Meisels (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood intervention (2nd edition). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
The role of paraprofessional staff is addressed in: Larner, M., Halpern, R. & Harkavy, O. (1992). Fair Start for Children. Lessons learned from seven demonstration projects. Yale University Press, New Haven and London (but health care is of course different in the USA and therfore the situation is not directly comparable with the UK).
See also: Johnson, Z., Howell, F., & Molloy, B. (1993). Community mothers’ programme: randomised controlled trial of non?professional intervention in parenting. British Medical Journal 306, 1449-1452.