Health for all Children

Chapter 13 References

Where possible we have provided additional details of websites referenced, see the Support Directory.

page page
246 Definitions of disability and handicap 262 Article by Pickstone
248 OPCS data 1986 265 Portage
248 Warnock report 265 Screening for muscular dystrophy
252 Autism 267 Psychological disorders
253 Correction for prematurity 268 ADHD
254 SCOPE 271 Medication in child psychiatry
257 PEDS 271 Shortages in mental health work
258 Platforms – Melbourne 272 Primary mental health workers
258-260 Language development 272 Southampton behaviour resource service
261 AFASIC 273 ‘Together we stand’
262 HTA


Page 246: Definitions of disability and handicap
The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) website is

Page 248: OPCS data 1986 and reanalysis
“The prevalence of disability among children. OPCS surveys of disability in Great Britain Report 3.” Bone & Meltzer 1989.
Gordon et al. (2000) Disabled children in Britain: a re-analysis of the OPCS disability surveys, HMSO, London.

Page 248 Warnock report
Warnock Report – Department of Education and Science (DES) (1978): Special Educational Needs 
(The Warnock Report). HMSO (ISBN 0 10 172120 X)
The report put an end to labels previously used in education, such as “handicap”, and replacing them with the label “special educational needs”. The recommendations of the report found their way into the Education Act, 1981.

Page 252: Autism
Medical Research Council. Review of autism research: epidemiology and causes. London: Medical Research Council, December 2001. Available from This document contains the full-text report of the review on the epidemiology and causes of autism, undertaken by the Medical Research Council (MRC). Commissioned by the Department of Health, this review takes into account expertise and opinion beyond the scientific community, and will be of interest to health professionals, scientists, consumers and the general public. Chapters cover autism spectrum disorders, how common the disorders are, causes, and research into autism spectrum disorders.
Overview of autism: Gillberg C. (1990) Autism and pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry31, 99-120;
Wing L. The Continuum of Autistic Characteristics, 91-110. In Schopler E and Mesibov GB (Eds), Diagnosis and assessment in autism, New York, Plenum Press, 1988
Baron-Cohen, S., Allen, J., & Gillberg, C. (1992). Can autism be detected at 18 months? The needle, the haystack and the CHAT. British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 839-843.
Baron-Cohen, S., Cox, A., Baird, G., Swettingham, J., Drew, A., Nightingale, N., Morgan, K., & Chapman, T. (1996). Psychological markers of autism at 18 months of age in a large population. British Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 158-163.
Scambler D, Rogers SJ, Wehner EA.
Can the checklist for autism in toddlers differentiate young children with autism from those with developmental delays? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001;40(12):1457-63.
ASD – Guidance from the Autism Working Group – Part One. DfES,
PROPOSED GUIDELINES For Identification; Assessment; Diagnosis and Access to Early Interventions for Pre-School and Primary School Aged Children* with ASDs (ASD): 2002. Produced by NIASA: National Initiative for Autism: Screening and Assessment.
The Economist reviewed the latest developments in autism – “Out of the deep freeze”, Jan 11th 2003, page 73. See also Philosophical Transactions B, and JAMA Jan 2003

Page 253: Correction for prematurity
See Correction for prematurity at end of this document.

Page 254: SCOPE
Right from the Start. Looking at diagnosis and disclosure – parents describe how they found out about their child’s disability. By Anne Leonard, SCOPE,
Useful reviews on professional – parent communication: Sloper P, Turner S. (1993). Determinants of parental satisfaction with disclosure of disability. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology35, 816-25;
Beresford BA. (1994) Resources and strategies: how parents cope with the care of a disabled child. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry35, 171-209.
Robards MF. (1994). Running a team for disabled children and their families. Clinics in Developmental Medicine130. Cambridge University Press.

Page 257: PEDS
Australian review of screening – Child Health screening and Surveillance: a critical review of the evidence. Report prepared by Centre for Community Child Health, Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne for the National Health and Medical Research Council. 2002.
Glascoe, F. P. (2000). Evidence-based approach to developmental and behavioural surveillance using parents’ concerns. Child: care, health and development, 26(2), 137-149.
Fenson, L., Dale, P.S., Reznick, S.J. Thal, D., Bates, E., Hartnung, J.P., Pethick, S., & Reilly, J.S. (1993) MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (MCDI), Singular Publishers, San Diego.
Gillam, B., Boyle, J. & Smith, N. (1997) First Words & First Sentences Tests (FWT/FST), Hodder & Stoughton, London.
General reviews of developmental screening and surveillance: Bain, J. (1989). Developmental screening for pre-school children: is it worthwhile? Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners39, 133-135; Colver, A.F. (1990). Health surveillance of preschool children: four years’ experience. BMJ300, 1246-1248; Dearlove, J. & Kearney, D. (1990). How good is general practice developmental screening? BMJ300, 1177-1180; Dworkin, P.H. (1989). British and American recommendations for developmental monitoring: the role of surveillance [see comments]. Pediatrics84, 1000-1010; Frankenburg, W.K., Chen, J.H., & Thornton, S.M. (1988). Common pitfalls in the evaluation of developmental screening tests. Journal of Pediatrics113, 1110?1113; Meisels, S.J. (1988). Developmental screening in early childhood: the interaction of research and social policy. [Review]. Annual Review of Public Health9, 527-550; Wearmouth, E.M., Lambert, P., & Morland, R. (1994). Quality assurance in preschool surveillance. Archives of Disease in Childhood70, 505-511.
Parents’ Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) available, with some references, Accessed 7 December 2002.
Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families. The Family Pack of Questionnaires and Scales. Cox A, Bentovim A. Department of Health,

Page 258: Platforms – Melbourne
Melbourne children’s hospital – early childhood information.
Data on Platforms not yet published.

Page 258-260: Language development
Report on educational issues for teachers and speech and language therapists working with children with speech, language and communication needs – ‘Joint Professional Development Framework’. Published December 2001 by I.CAN – The national education charity for children with speech and language difficulties. Web site,

Page 261: AFASIC; parental awareness of difficulties with early language acquisition
Web site for Afasic – the UK charity representing children and young adults with communication impairments. Web site,

Page 262: HTA by Law & Boyle on screening for speech and language disorders 
Law J, Boyle J, Harris F, Harkness A & Nye C. (1998) Screening for speech and language delay: A systematic review of the literature Health Technology Assessment 2 (9)

Page 262: Article by Pickstone
Pickstone C, Hannon P Fox L. (2002) Surveying and screening preschool language development in community-focused intervention programmes: a review of instruments. Child: Care, health and development 2002;28(3):251-264..

Page 265: Portage
The Portage Homepage is at

Page 265: Screening for muscular dystrophy
Smith R A, Rogers M, Bradley D M, Sibert J R, Harper P S. Screening for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Arch. Dis. Child. 1989 64: 1017-1021

Page 267: Psychological and emotional disorders and prevalence
Children in mind – child and adolescent mental health services. Audit commission,
Everybody’s Business – Child and adolescent mental health services National Assembly for Wales, 9/01, 2001.
The Review of Safeguards for Children and Young People Treated and Cared for by the NHS in Wales : The Carlile Review. Report by Lord Carlile for the Welsh Assembly considering the arrangements for the care and safety of children and young people treated by the NHS in Wales.
Useful publications on child mental health topics including a review of parent training programmes, and a study on childhood onset eating problems –
Enuresis resource and information centre (ERIC) –
Breaking down the barriers – key evaluation findings on young people’s mental health needs. Published by Youth Access – 2001.
Genetics and human behaviour. Nuffield Council on Bioethics,
Offord, D.R. (1987). Prevention of behavioral and emotional disorders in children. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines28, 9-19.
Pearce, J. (1993). Child health surveillance for psychiatric disorder: practical guidelines.Archives of Disease in Childhood69, 394-398.
Stevenson, J. (1990). Health visitor based services for pre?school children with behavioural problems. Occasional Paper No. 2, Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry. (A collection of papers on health visitor intervention); Nicholl, R. (1993). Preschool children in troubled families: approaches to intervention and support. Wiley

Page 268: ADHD
Attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorders in children and young people. SIGN Publication No. 52. June 2001.
American Academy of Pediatrics (2000) Clinical practice guideline: Diagnosis and evaluation of the child with Attention – Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder, Pediatrics,105, 1158 -70.
FOCUS on The Use of Stimulants in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence-based Briefing April 1999. Out of print as of Jan 2003

Page 271 Medication in child psychiatry – especially ADHD
Hill P,Taylor E. An auditable protocol for treating attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder .Arch. Dis. Child. 2001 84: 404-409
See also review published by NICE

Page 271: Shortages in mental health work – see audit commission, Kurtz
Children in mind – child and adolescent mental health services. Audit commission,

Page 272: Primary mental health workers
Hall D. and Hill P., in Health Care Needs Assessment, ed Stephens and Raftery, publ. Radcliffe, Abingdon (2003)

Page 272: Southampton behaviour recource service. Multi-systemic therapy
A Report on the Southampton Behaviour Report Service can be obtained

Page 273: ‘Together we stand’
NHS Health Advisory Service. Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services; Together We Stand. The commissioning, role and management of child and adolescent mental health services. 1995.